The book was written initially to provide the students the first lessons on the topic. It was revised in 2022 to reach the larger readership. In the meantime, the political and economic scenario of North East India has undergone sea changes that requires broader analysis. The present work attempts to include the political and economic changes initiated in the region. However, the statistics provided in the book remains nearly the same. After the partition, North East India had acquired a new geo-political status of its own as it is bordered by many foreign countries. Hence, both the state governments and the centre emphasize on evaluating this special status. In view of Bangladesh emerging as the viable economy on the western part of the region, it is imperative that the economy of North East India must acquire all the traits of a self-sustaining economy shedding the burden of its dependence on the centre. The study discusses these aspects on the basis of the practical problems faced by the region. It’s a tale of clashes showing the dependence of the centre and a self-sustaining economy. The study discusses the ethnic, geographical and economical diversifies of the region, changed character of ethnic culture that includes economic sustenance and modern technological demands, transitions brought about by the modern economy leading to economic imbalances, uneven distribution of transport/railway networks in the region resulting in internal diversities. The author emphasises that the internal diversities in North East India are prominent demanding special attentions from the policy makers.