Nepal has experienced a vicious cycle of political instability since the 1950s. Multiparty democracy and constitutional monarchy (Twin-pillar system) collapsed in just one and half decades as it failed to maintain political stability and control the Maoist insurgency. The federal democratic republic has also become entangled in instability. In the last 70 years, Nepal has experienced almost all political systems, but none of them provided sustained stability and desired economic progress. This book examines the instability conundrum through five drivers: founding philosophy, national interest and threats, domestic political culture, civil-military relations, state response to armed insurgencies, and interest and Nepal strategies of external powers. Its underlying reasons and intricacies are cross-examined and discussed in the book.