Bioremediation is one of the most promising technological approaches to the problem of hazardous waste, which relies on microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi to transform hazardous chemicals into less toxic or nontoxic substances. Such biological transformation is more attractive than direct chemical or physical treatment. Microorganisms directly degrade contaminants rather than merely transferring them from one medium to another, employ metabolic degradation pathways and can be used in situ to minimize disturbance of the cleanup site. Hence, microorganisms can be effective, economical and non-disruptive tools for eliminating hazardous chemicals. There is no doubt that bioremediation is in the process of paving a way to greater pastures. The book aims to provide relevant theoretical and practical frameworks and the latest empirical research findings in this area, along with case studies. It is written for students, academicians and industry professionals who want to improve their understanding of the strategic role of bioremediation at different levels of the bioremediation research and knowledge, that is, heavy metal pollution, toxicity, remediation methods and strategies to manage the waste in industries, which are a global concern.