The objective of this book is to provide state-of-the-art knowledge, and highlight the current developments taking place in biological sciences. The book encompasses topics on prokaryotic cyanobacteria to higher plants, distributed in fourteen s for the benefit of graduate and post-graduate students as well as young researchers and scientists. Subjects covered include molecular and biochemical diversity of microbes, stress biology, cyanotoxins, antimicrobial activity of drugs originated from plants, natural bioactive compounds of microbial origin, detection approaches for genetically modified crops, genomics and proteomics. The book provides an insight for future perspectives in particular field with extensive bibliographies at the end of each . With all these, this book becomes highly useful and must-read for students, researchers and professionals in botany, biotechnology, bioinformatics, environmental sciences, agriculture, molecular biology and other streams of biological sciences.