'The present book provides information about the zoological as well as botanical aspects of life. The subject material of the book is divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1 covers the world of living and life processes, chapter 2 and 3 present the control, co-ordination and reproduction in animals and plants, chapter 4 covers the basic concepts of evolution, sex determination and origin of life, chapter 5 deals with sources, forms and utilization of energy, chapter 6 and 7 cover the environment and management of natural resources. The most important feature of this book is that we have included a different types of questions with remember sockets in the last of each chapter from core material for evaluating the learning skill of the students. The language of book is very plain and diagrams are keeping to the simple with concept maps to understanding the student\'s easily during Read more
Table of Contents
Preface v Acknowledgment vii 1. World of Living 1-86 1.1 What are Life Processes? 3 1.2 Energy is needed for the Life Processes 4 1.3 Nutrition 4 1.4 Nutrition in Plants 10 1.4 Conditions Necessary for Photosynthesis 12 1.5 Raw Materials for Photosynthesis 17 1.6 Site of Photosynthesis: Chloroplasts 18 1.7 Factors affecting the Photosynthesis 21 1.8 Process of Photosynthesis 23 1.9 CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) Pathway 25 1.10 Nutrition in Animals 25 1.11 Dental Caries 35 1.12 Respiration 37 1.13 Phosphorylation 43 1.14 Anaerobic Respiration (Fermentation) 45 1.15 Aerobic Respiration 46 1.16 Respiration in Plants 49 1.17 Respiration in Animals 51 1.18 Respiratory System in Humans (Man) 56 1.19 Transport in Plants 60 1.20 Excretion 65 Remember Sockets 71 x Very Short Answers type Questions 76 Short Answers type Questions 78 Long Answers type Questions 79 Multiple Choice Questions
80 2. Control and Co-ordination in Animals and Plants 87-149 2.1 Control and Coordination 87 2.2 Control and Coordination in Plants 88 2.3 Plant Hormones or Phytohormones (Phyto= Plant) 98 2.4 Dormancy and Quiescence 100 2.5 Photoperiodism 101 2.6 Phytochromes 102 2.7 Vernalization 103 2.8 Coordination in Animals 103 2.9 Nervous System in Animals 104 2.10 Human Nervous System 114 220.127.116.11 Spinal Cord 118 2.11 Hormones 120 Remember Sockets 136 Very Short Answer type Questions 143 Short Answer type Questions 144 Long Answer type Questions 144 Multiple Choice Questions 145 3. Reproduction 150-208 3.1 Introduction and Definition 150 3.2 Types of Reproduction 152 3.3 Pollination 174 3.4 Fertilization in Plants 175 3.5 Reproduction in Human beings 176 3.6 Sexual Cycle in Females 180 3.7 Birth Control 187 3.8 Reproduction Health and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) 190 3.9 Womens Health during Pregnancy 193 xi 3.10. Stop Female Foeticide 194 Remember Sockets 194 Very Short Answer type Questions 198 Short Answer type Questions 200 Long Answer type Questions 201 Multiple Choice Questions 201 4. Heredity and Evolution 209-273 4.1 Variations 210 4.2 Some Important terms of Mendels Experiments 212 4.3 Mendels Contribution or Rules for the Inheritance of Traits 216 4.4 Transmission of Characteristics (Traits) to Progeny (Offspring) 223 4.5 Mechanism of Genes controls the Characteristics (Traits) 224 4.6 Inheritance of Blood Groups 225 4.7 Sex Determination 227 4.8 Acquired and Inherited Traits 230 4.9 Evolution 232 4.10 Darwins Theory of Evolution 239 4.11 Speciation 241 4.12 Evolution by Stages 244 4.13 Progress Vs. Evolution 247 4.14 Human Evolution 248 4.15 Origin of Life 249 Remember Sockets 257 Very Short Answer type Questions 261 Short Answer type Questions 264 Long Answer type Questions 267 Multiple Choice Questions 268 5. Sources of Energy 274-304 5.1 Energy Resources 274 5.2 Growing Energy Needs 275 5.3 Conventional Energy 276 5.4 Non-Conventional Energy 282 5.5 Renewable Resources 294 xii 5.6 Non-renewable Resources 295 5.7 Differences between Renewable and Non-renewable Resources 295 5.8 Differences between Conventional and Non-Conventional 296 Sources of Energy Remember Sockets 298 Very Short Answer type Questions 301 Short Answer type Questions 302 Long Answer type Questions 302 Multiple Choice Questions 303 6. Our Environment 305-375 6.1 Ecosystem 305 6.18 Examples of Ecosystem 313 6.2 Food Chains 315 6.3 Food Web 320 6.4 Ecological Pyramid 325 6.5 Flow of Materials in Ecosystem is Cyclic but Flow of Energy is 329 Unidirectional 6.6 Ten Per Cent (10%) Law 330 6.7 Humans Activities on Environment 332 Remember Sockets 354 Very Short Answer type Questions 358 Short Answer type Questions 362 Long Answer Type Questions 365 Multiple Choice Questions 367 7. Management of Natural Resources 376-428 7.1 Types of Natural Resources 377 7.2 Necessity to Manage Our Resources 379 7.3 Conservation 379 7.4 The Three Rs to save Resources/Environment 380 7.5 Forests 382 7.6 Participation of People in the Management of Forests 386 7.7 Conservation Strategies: 388 7.8 Wildlife 390 7.9 Endangered Species 391 xiii 7.10 Conservation of Wildlife 392 7.11 Water 394 7.12 Water Pollution 396 7.13 Management and Conservation of Water Resources 397 7.14 Dams 398 7.15 Water Harvesting 400 7.16 Rain and Rain Harvesting 400 7.17 Conservation and Management of Water Resources 405 7.18 Watershed Management 405 7.19 Fossil Fuels 406 7.20 Fossil Fuels as a Source of Pollution 407 7.21 Steps to reduce the consumption of Fossil Fuels 408 7.22 Biogas 409 7.23 Biogas Plant 410 7.24 Sustainability of Natural Resources 411 Remember Sockets 411 Very Short Answer type Questions 417 Short Answer Type Questions 419 Long Answer Type Questions 421 Multiple Choice Questions: 422 Concept Maps 429 Index 447
About the Author/Editor
Dr. Amit Kumar Jain has more than fourteen years of professional experience of teaching, research and administration. Dr. Jain joined IGNOU as Assistant Regional Director (ARD) IGNOU Regional Centre Ahmedabad Gujarat in 2011, and presently working at IGNOU RC Karnal Haryana. Prior to this, he has served as Assistant Professor in Microbiology, J.V. College, Baraut, Uttar Pradesh. He obtained Ph.D in 2005 and Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) Degree (Botany) in 2015 from CCS University, Meerut. He has qualified ICAR-NET in Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. He has also acquired the degree of B.Ed, MA(Edu), MA in Distance Education (MADE), PG Diplomas i.e. PGDNBT, PGDDE, PGDESD, PGDRD, PGDIPR and PGDEMA through ODL Mode. He is the Fellow of International and National level academic societies i.e. Linnean Society of London (UK), Society of Innovative Educationalist & Scientific Research Professional
(FSIESRP) and Botanical Society (India) as well as Life member of the Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA), Kolkata and Centre of Education Growth and Research (CEGR), New Delhi. He has earned various national and international awards. In 2018, he awarded Innovative Researcher and Dedicated Academician Award 2018 by INSRPM Malaysia. Dr. Jain has published 05 Books, 50 Research Articles in national and international journals, and published 8 Book chapters edited by various authors. Dr. Jain has participated in a large number of national and international seminars, conferences, workshops, training and added programmes. He is the member of various committees of academic bodies of other reputed organizations. Prof. J.D.S. Panwar got Ph.D. in Plant Physiology from Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi. Joined IARI, Plant Physiology in 1971 and served the Institute in various capacities as Scientist, Senior Scientist, Principal Scientist and as Head, Division of CPBM at IIPR, Kanpur. Retired as Head, Division of Plant Physiology, IARI, New Delhi. He was engaged in research for 37 years, teaching 19 years and guided to M.Sc. and Ph.D. students. He worked on several projects as PI and published 06 books, more than hundred research articles in journals of national and international repute. He has international exposure at University of Illinois, Urbana Champagin, USA as UNDP/FAO fellow. Prof. Panwar is a fellow of ISPP and ISPRD 1993 onward, awarded as ISPP, G.S. Sirohi best paper publication award (2003). He served as expert/members of academic and administrative bodies at national level. He leaded as Vice Chancellor, Mahatma Gandhi University, Meghalaya as well as Venketashwara Open University, Arunachal Pradesh. He has actively participated in the Vice Chancellor`s conferences organized by Association of Indian Universities, New Delhi in collaboration of different universities. In 2016, he has been awarded as Excellence Education Award by Confederation of Indian University at Kolkata. He has also participated in round table discussion on GST organized by Education Promotion Society for India (EPSI) in 2017.