Agriculture is the mainstay of not only Assam but also India. Real picture of India can be comprehended in rural areas. As much as 99 per cent of the geographical area of Assam belongs to the rural area. Char areas are the core part of the rural Assam laying in the river Brahmaputra. Very less alternative is there for the livelihood of the people in the char areas except agriculture. Here in the study, it is tried to cover some important aspects of agriculture like land, agricultural production & productivity and agricultural technology used supported by time series data during the period of 1971 to 2011 followed by primary data. Land is the first thing to come in mind to think about agriculture. The book gives an idea about the agrarian relation of the state in general and char area in particular. Operational holdings, agricultural employment, and land ceiling are some focus of the book. Population dependency on agriculture for employment is very high and small size of average operational holdings are important feature of the state’s economy. Besides, scope of extensive cultivation for raising total production in the state is scanty. Intensive cultivation is the only alternative left for raising total production for non-modernised agricultural technology in Assam as well as char areas. Bio-chemical technology as well as mechanical technology are two methods used for agricultural development is another dimension of the present study. Flood and river erosion are the two common menaces causing frequent disastrous damages in the agriculture of Assam. Excessive dependency on agriculture and flood damages on it, use of chemical fertilizer cause to rethink about the sustainability of agriculture. The study incorporates sustainable agricultural development as an important fragment of the book.