Through an analysis of archaeological and literary data, this book explores two interrelated themes: the socio-economic and cultic processes that resulted in the decline of Indian Buddhism in its last strongholds – Bihar and Bengal – towards the end of the early medieval period, and the patterns of revival of Buddhism in the neighbouring province of Uttar Pradesh, c. 2005-2011 ce. These themes have been explored by undertaking an analysis of the developments in the social histories of other competing religions: Hinduism, Jainism and Ajivika-dharma. By placing emphasis on the religious praxis and behaviour of the non-elite segment of population, this book offers some significant ‘from below’ perspectives on the social histories of Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism and Ajivika-dharma in eastern and northern India. About the Author Birendra Nath Prasad is an Assistant Professor at the Centre for Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, where he teaches economic history and maritime history of ancient and early medieval India, social history of religion in ancient and early medieval India, and history of Southeast Asia to c.1500 ce. His recent publications include Archaeology of Religion in South Asia: Buddhist, Brahmanical and Jaina Religious Centres in Bihar and Bengal, c. ad 600-1200 (New Delhi, London and New York, 2021); and Rethinking Bihar and Bengal: History, Culture and Religion (New Delhi, London and New York, 2021).