Population growth and its implications are at the heart of the concept of sustainable development which is defined as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.” A globalised economy requires states and government to follow internationally accepted governance principles which focuses on creation of a strong civil society. Energy is the vital force powering business, manufacturing and the transportation of goods and services to serve the Indian and world economies. Energy supply and demand plays an increasingly vital role in our national security and the economic output of our nation. Environment conservation and sustainable development are closely interlinked such that one cannot be achieved at the expense of the other. The preservation of natural resources is one of the important components of environmental conservation in the hilly areas. Loss of biodiversity and disturbance of the ecosystem continue to be a major global threat to sustainable development.