Biodiversity means the diversity of life. Usually, the measure of biodiversity is genetic diversity, a measure of how many distinct genetic species there are in an area or population. These are sometimes called genetic resources, because they can be used as the starting point for new products or processes. Biodiversity is used in two contexts: the diversity of natural organisms, and the diversity of farmed crops or animals.
In the larger world, biodiversity concerns the vast range of plants (and animals, although these are considered less important from a biotechnological point of view) currently alive. Many of them may produce something useful to humans: a new drug, a new foodstuff, a new material. If they are allowed to be wiped out (and most species of plants live in the tropics, which are now under substantial threat) that potential will be lost forever. There is substantial concern that the biodiversity of Third World (i.e. not rich) countries is being exploited by rich ones. The biodiversity in India i.e. forests, grasslands, wetlands mountains, desert and marine ecosystems face many pressures. One of the major causes for the loss of biological diversity in India has been the depletion of vegetative cover in order to expand agriculture.
On the farm, biodiversity is considered to be a good thing. If a country plants only one type of crop (for example), Then a pathogen can sweep the entire countrys crop from the fields. Thus not having a countrys crop form the fields. Thus, not having a country plant just a single type (or cultivar) of a crop is protection against pandemics.
The role of biotechnology in this is double-edged. If biotechnology produces new, wonder-wheat, then that will be planted in place of all other cultivars, He wheat-growing world will end up being a monoculture, biodiversity
will have been reduced, on the other hand, biotechnological methods are such that if we can transform one cereal with a gene you can transform a lot more, so biotechnology could actually increase biodiversity by increasing the number of crops with desirable genes in them. The green revolution, including biotechnology, has been so successful that farmers are no longer under pressure to grow monocultures of the most productive crops.
Plant Biodiversity: Principles and Conservation
Ways to Conserve Plant Biodiversity
The Role of Plant Genetic Resources in Conserving Biodiversity
Biotechnological Techniques for Biodiversity Conservation
Biodiversity and Germplasm Conservation
Synthetic Seeds and Biodiversity Conservation
Conservation of Fruit and Plantation Crops through Biotechnology
Conservation of Vegetable Crops through Biotechnology
Conservation of Spices and Condiments through Biotechnology
Conservation of Flower Crops through Biotechnology
Appendix 1 to 5