The present work is the comprehensive study of architectural and engineering aspects of the monuments of Mathura-Vrindavan comprising history and culture including the development of gardening at monuments. The twin towns of Mathura and Vrindavan are a well-known pilgrimage and cultural centre of India as well as it may be regarded as cultural cradle of India also. The architectural and engineering aspects are analysed in the light of historical and archaeological evidence right from early date especially from Mughals to the times of Marathas. The first chapter discusses with Puranic-Brahmanical traditions including whole historical survey with literature and political history of Mathura from Mauryas to Marathas. Second chapter deals with patronage and contributions made by emperors, kings and chieftains in building various monuments. A vivid description of architectural details of the monuments of Mughals, Jats and Maratha times have been referred to in the third and fourth chapters respectively. The fifth chapter deals with engineering aspects mentioning the literary—evidence, artisans and their qualities, building materials, utilization of wood, brick construction as well as mortar and plaster for smooth surface including the development of gardening at monuments. Sixth chapter discusses with river side Ghats at Vrindavan and Mathura with their structural features and builders. The seventh chapter reflects to the aesthetic and decorative devices of monuments. With subsantiality of the subject, lastly, the conclusion (epilogue) has a glimpse of the whole work. Thus, an attempt has been made, from various sources to appraise the architectural, structural and engineering aspects of monuments for the objective to apprehend their evolution and systematic development process.