The valley of Kashmir continues to be a major flashpoint in South Asia, threatening the stability of a region of great strategic importance. This book, now in its fifth updated edition, examines the conflict over the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir - located on the borders of China and currently geographically de facto divided between India and Pakistan - in its historical context, from the period when the valley was an independent kingdom to the present day. As Schofield narrates, for over thirty years the insurgency in the Kashmir valley has provoked serious tensions between the two nuclear neighbours, with China now an interested player. Having conducted extensive research, she takes into account the hopes and fears of all protagonists – India, Pakistan and the people of Jammu and Kashmir who are themselves divided, not only by their linguistic and cultural traditions, but also in their objectives. With a new chapter covering recent developments – including the abrogation of Article 370 of the Indian constitution by the BJP government in India in 2019 – this is the essential guide to what, in 1948, the United Nations called the 'India-Pakistan Question'.