Kalikrama and Abhinavagupta: The Epistemological Ethos of a Tantric Tradition
Navjivan Rastogi
  • ISBN 13 : 9788124607572
  • year : 2022
  • language : English
  • binding : Hardbound
The Krama School of the Trika Saivism of Kashmir, more familiar as Kalikrama in the contemporary parlance, has turned out to be the most crucial among the monistic Saiva traditions of medieval Kashmir after the Pratyabhijna school, a scenario people could hardly envisage six decades back when it first came to the notice of modern scholarship. The doctrine of Kalikrama, lit. sequential order of consciousness deities called Kalis, constitutes the most pivotal aspect of this school marked by a synchronous resonance between the esoteric/Tantric and cognitive/metaphysical undercurrents of the system. In order to delve deeper into the doctrine of Kalikrama the present monograph does some loud thinking in three important areas: (a) the role of cognitivization in the ultimate realization; (b) the theoretical background of the mystical experience built around the consciousness deity(ies); and (c) the inconclusiveness of the hidden meaning posing an epistemological barrier in the study of an esoteric Tantric tradition. In all these areas one cannot miss the imprints of Abhinavagupta’s profound contribution. As such, the present study journeys into three directions: (1) a short genealogy of modern Krama studies; (2) the epistemology of the esoteric internalization embodied in the doctrine of Kalikrama; and (3) the role played by Abhinavagupta as its foremost architect. As such, the present study needs be construed as a small step towards discovering the intrinsic epistemological ethos of an esoteric Tantric tradition. CONTENTS Preface Abbreviations 1. Approaching the Core Theme Tradition Underexplored Brief Recount of Modern Krama Studies Meaning of “Exploring” an Esoteric System 2. Succession as the Central Problem of Philosophy Krama Exegesis of Succession (Krama) Synthesizing Succession with the Unitary Framework of Krama Explaining the Nature of Succession (Krama) Krama vs Apohana: Succession vs Logical Exclusion Bhedana, Apohana and Kramana: Differentiation, Logical Exclusion and Succession 3. Krama Reality as Kalo Krama’s Indebtedness to Bhartrhari and Patanjali Hermeneutics of Kalana: The Niche World-view of Abhinavagupta’s Krama Cyclical Notion of Reality: Essence of Four- Five-fold Functional Ontology 4. Abhinavagupta as Pramana-Purusa: The Foremost Systematizer of Krama Integrating Krama within Pratyabhijna Metaphysics Seminal Elements of Abhinavagupta’s Legacy Associating Kalis with Saktopaya Abhinavagupta’s Krama Writings Motivation behind Composing a New Krama-Stotra The New Krama-Stotra as an Embodiment of Abhinavagupta’s Version of Samvit-cakra 5. Abhinavagupta’s Kramification of Trika Thought Developing Anuttaratrika-prakriyà Methodology for Exploring Tantra-Tattva Reformulating Cultural Paradigm: Positing Bhoga as an Integral Component of Moksa Devising an Encyclopaedic Epistemological Architecture under Anuttaratrika-prakriya External Phase Internal Phase Inventing Prakriya Methodology at Macro Level Schematization at Micro Level Schematization at Subtler Micro Level (a) Appropriating Kalana to Twelve-Kali Cycle (Samvit-Krama) (b) Four Models of Twelve-Kali Cycle Appropriating Kalana to Vikalpa-Samskara 6. Epistemology of Internalization Structural Epistemologization Sense Faculties as Sense Deities (Karanesvari) Body as Threefold Seat of Awareness Flow As Gross Seat (Pitha-Niketana) As Subtle Seat (Vrnda-Cakra) As Transcendental Seat (Pancavaha) Analysing Epistemological Process Pramana as a Vehicle for Internalizing the Object Pramana as an Aestheticizing Process Meta-epistemological Character of Pramana Pramana as Karana 7. Abhinavagupta’s Kramification of the Tantric Lore: Revisiting His Paramarthasara 8. Summing Up Bibliography Index