As the world moves into the second decade of the 21st century, a new power rivalry is taking shape between India and China, Asia’s two behemoths in terms of territory, population and richness of civilization. India’s recent successful launch of a long-range missile able to hit Beijing and Shanghai with nuclear weapons is the latest sign of this development. India and China are two of the world’s most ancient civilizations. For centuries they shared advanced ideas, inventions, religious and philosophical traditions. But their economies and societies stagnated during the colonial period. In the post-colonial period mutual relations suffered a setback due to political and boundary disputes. In contemporary times they have reemerged as leading techno-economic nations. India’s position, from the outset, has been directed at creating a world order based on the principle of “uniformity through diversity.” This model incorporates consensusdriven world politics and international relations, while groups of “horizontally” organized states acting in accordance with the principle of coordination rather than subordination will inevitably become key players on the international arena. It is further hoped that the book will prove to be of immense value to teachers, students and researchers.