‘Elementary Biotechnology’ is a book which has been written to demystify the science of biotechnology. Biotechnology is generally a technique that is used to modify the products of living organisms with the help of cell and tissue culture, molecular biology, to generate unique organisms with new traits. The exploitation of genetically engineered microorganisms, centred on the technology of genetic engineering or recombinant DNA, constants advanced biotechnology. The advent of biotechnology has opened up a wide horizon in the field of biological research. Participatory methods developed in the social sciences can help in understanding problems and the researchable issues, particularly those of small farmers operating in marginal environments. They may also be used to clarify the concerns of rural and urban dwellers in regard to the deployment of new technologies, including the products of biotechnology. In modern times, biotechnology has acquired a new role to play as our present day life style largely depends on it. This study deals with biotechnology, as a discipline. It covers all aspects of the subject, in view of making it beneficial for scholars and students alike. This book explores, in a highly comprehensive manner, all aspects of biotechnology, explaining the history, techniques and applications of modern biotechnology.