Balwinder Singh, Ramesh Singh and S S Gosal
  • ISBN : 9788194791331
  • year : 2021
  • language : English
  • binding : Softcover
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This book offer a plethora of environmentally benign alternatives to these chemical insecticides. It is hoped that the book will fill the wide gap in literature on utilization of biological and molecular approaches in biointensive IPM as an alternative to chemical insecticide based IPM for sustainable insect pest management in future. Contents: Preface Contributors Contents 1.Application of Modern Tools of Biotechnology for Pest Management - Prospects and Limitations - H C Sharma 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Genetic Transformation of Crop Plants for Insect Resistance 1.3. Genetic Improvement of Natural Enemies 1.4. Genetic Improvement of Biopesticides 1.5. Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection for Insect Resistance 1.6. Understanding Gene Sequence and Function 1.7. Metabolic Pathways 1.8. Inducible Resistance 1.9. Use of Molecular Markers for Diagnosis of Insect Pests and Their Natural Enemies 1.10. Development of New Insecticide Molecules 1.11. Dominant Repressible Lethal Genetic System to Produce Sterile Insects 1.12. Prospects and Limitations 1.13. Conclusions References 2. Biotechnological Approaches for Enhancing Resistance to Planthoppers in Rice - D S Brar, P S Sarao, Kuldeep Singh, K K Jena and D Fujita 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Sources of Resistance to Hoppers in Rice 2.3. Breeding Strategy to Enhance Hopper Resistance 2.3.1. Phenotyping for Hopper Resistance 2.3.2. Genetics of hopper resistance 2.4. Enhancement of Resistance in Rice to Hoppers through Genetic Engineering 2.4.1. RNAi-mediated gene silencing 2.5. Conclusion References 3.Molecular Studies in Biosystematics, Phylogeny and Distribution of Tephritid Fruit flies: A Global Perspective Abraham Verghese - M A Rashmi, A K Chakravarthy, P D Kamala Jayanthi and G Nagalakshmi 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Molecular Taxonomy 3.3. Molecular Tools in Analyzing Invasion History 3.4. Molecular Methodologies in Detection of Gut Bacteria 3.5. Transcriptome Analysis 3.6. Pest Management 3.7. Conclusion References 4. RNA Interference Research: Current Status and Future Outlook for Utilization in Insect Pest Management Prashant Mohanpuria - Surinder K Sandhu and Ramesh Arora 4.1. Introduction 4.2. RNAi Vector Construction Strategies 4.2.1. HairpinRNA construct 4.2.2. Fusion PCR 4.3. Advantages of Utilizing RNAi in Pest Management 4.4. Requirements for Utilizing RNAi for Pest Management 4.4.1. Identification of suitable target in pest-insects 4.4.2. dsRNA delivery methods 4.4.3. Mechanisms of uptake of dsRNA/siRNA by cells and spread of silencing signals in plants and insects 4.4.4. Persistence of silencing effect and life stages of target insects 4.5. Conclusions References 5. Bioremediation of Pesticides in the Environment - Balwinder Singh and Kousik Mandal 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Biodegradation and Bioremediation 5.3. Strategies for Bioremediation 5.3.1. In situ bioremediation 5.3.2. Ex situ bioremediation 5.4. Role of Microbes 5.5. Factors Affecting Bioremediation of Pesticides 5.6. Microorganisms in Bioremediation 5.7. Biotechnology in Bioremediation 5.8. Phytoremediation 5.9. Advantages of Bioremediation 5.10. Disadvantages of Bioremediation 5.11. Conclusions References 6. Microbial Control in Insect Pest Management: Achievements and Challenges - Ramesh Arora 6.1. Introduction 6.2. Viral Entomopathogens 6.2.1. Baculoviruses 6.3. Bacterial Entomopathogens 6.3.1. Genus Bacillus 6.3.2. Genus Lysinibacillus 6.3.3. Genus Paenibacillus 6.3.4. Genus Brevibacillus 6.3.5. Gram – Negative Bacteria 6.4. Fungal Entomopathogens 6.4.1. Structure and Reproduction 6.4.2. Host Range 6.4.3. The Infection Process 6.4.4. Mycotoxins 6.4.5. Role in Pest Management 6.4.6. Genetic Improvement 6.5. Microsporidian Entomopathogens 6.6. Entomopathogenic Nematodes (EPNs) 6.6.1. Important Entomopathogenic Groups 6.6.2. Role in Pest Management 6.7. Status of Microbial Control in Punjab, India 6.7.1. Indigenous Entomopathogens Detected 6.7.2. Laboratory Studies 6.7.3. Field Trials 6.7.4. Safety Evaluation 6.8. Conclusions References 7. Towards Durable Gall Midge Resistance in Rice - J S Bentur 7.1. Introduction 7.2. Plant Resistance and Biotypes 7.3. Tagging and Mapping Gall Midge Resistance Genes in Rice 7.4. Gene Pyramiding for Durable Resistance 7.5. Virulence Monitoring in Gall Midge Populations 7.6. Molecular Basis of Resistance 7.7. Insect Virulence Genes 7.8. Conclusions References 8. Molecular Markers in Entomological Research - P S Burange, Sujan Mamidi, P C Pathania and Uma Kanta 8.1. Introduction 8.2. Types of Molecular Markers 8.2.1. Restriction digestion based markers 8.2.2. PCR based markers 8.2.3. Restriction and PCR based markers 8.2.4. DNA sequencing 8.2.5 Next generation markers 8.3. Applications of Molecular Markers in Entomology 8.4. Conclusions References 9. Transgenic Cotton in India: Ten Years and Beyond - Vijay Kumar, A K Dhawan and P S Shera 9.1. Introduction 9.2. Transgenic BT Cotton 9.3. Introduction of BT Cotton in India 9.4. Approved Events and BT Cotton Hybrids in India 9.4.1. Approved Events of Bt Cotton 9.4.2. New Events yet to be Commercialised 9.5. Adoption and Impact Analysis of Bt Cotton 9.5.1. Increase in Area 9.5.2. Increase in Production and Productivity 9.5.3. Pest Scenario on Bt Cotton 9.5.4. Reduction in Insecticide Usage 9.5.5. Economic Benefits 9.5.6. Impact of IPM Strategies in Bt Cotton 9.6. Conclusions References 10. A Status Update on the Use of Biotechnological Techniques for Combating Insect Pests of Fruit Crops - Krishan Kumar, P K Arora and Kuldeep Singh 10.1. Introduction 10.2. Markers Assisted Breeding 10.2.1. Linkage Map 10.2.2. Gene/QTL Mapping 10.2.3. High Resolution Mapping 10.3. Transgenics 10.3.1. Gene Construct 10.3.2. Methods of Gene Introduction 10.3.3. Selection, Regeneration and Testing of Transgenics 10.4. RNA Interference 10.4.1. Mechanism of RNAi 10.4.2. Status and Factors Affecting the Success of RNAi 10.5. Conclusions References 11. Pest- Insects Resistance to Microbial Control Agents: Current Status and Management Strategies - Arshdeep K Gill and Ramesh Arora 11.1. Introduction 11.2. Status of Insect Resistance to Microbial Control Agents 11.2.1. Bacillus thuringiensis 11.2.2. Resistance to Dipteran - specific Bacillus Toxins 11.2.3. Entomopathogenic Viruses 11.3. Cross Resistance among Toxins 11.3.1. Cross Resistance Between Cry Proteins 11.3.2. Cross Resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis 11.3.3. Cross-Resistance to Lysinibacillus sphaericus 11.4. Basis of Insect Resistance to MCAs 11.4.1. Morphological and Behavioral Basis of Resistance 11.4.2. Biochemical and Physiological Basis of Resistance 11.4.3. Genetic and Molecular Basis of Resistance 11.5. Stability of Bioinsecticide Resistance 11.6. Fitness Costs of Bioinsecticide Resistance 11.7. Management of Insect Resistance to MCAs 11.7.1. Management of Resistance to B. thuringiensis and its Toxins 11.7.2. Management of Resistance to Bacterial Insecticides in Mosquito Populations 11.7.3. Virulence management of Cydia pomonella granulovirus 11.8. Conclusions References 12. Biological and Molecular Approaches in Management of Mite Pests - Paramjit Kaur and Manmeet B Bhullar 12.1. Introduction 12.2. Integrated Mite management 12.2.1. Biological control 12.2.2. Molecular approaches 12.3. Conclusions References 13. Biosystematics, Molecular Characterization and Management of Shoot and Fruit Borer Conogethes spp. (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) - A K Chakravarthy, P R Shashank, B Doddabasappa, S B Kandakoor and Chandrashekharaiah 13.1. Introduction 13.2. Biosystematics 13.3. Molecular Characterisation 13.4. Conogethes pinicolalis Inoue and Yamanaka, 2006: An Evolved Species 13.5. Pheromones 13.6. Insect Host Plant Interactions 13.7. Bioecology 13.8. Feeding Behavior 13.9. Alternate Host Plants 13.10. Crop Losses 13.11. Management 13.12. Conclusion References 14. Molecular Techniques as Precision Diagnostics for Diseases and Mites of Honey Bees - Pardeep K Chhuneja and Kuldeep Singh 14.1. Introduction 14.2. Beekeeping in India 14.3. A. mellifera Introduction by PAU: Safeguard against Introduction of Diseases and Enemies 14.4. Bee Diseases and Mites 14.5. Occurrence of Bee Diseases and Mites in India 14.6. Diagnosis of Bee Diseases and Pests 14.7. Molecular Techniques as Diagnostics 14.7.1. Polymerase chain reaction 14.7.2. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction 14.7.3. Real-time polymerase chain reaction 14.8. Molecular Markers 14.9. Steps in Molecular Diagnosis 14.9.1. Sample collection 14.9.2. RNA/ DNA extraction 14.9.3. Designing pathogen specific primers/probes 14.9.4. PCR-amplification 14.10. Diagnostics Developments for Bee Pathogenic Taxa 14.10.1. Bacterial diseases 14.10.2. Viral diseases 14.10.3. Fungal diseases 14.10.4. Microsporidian diseases 14.10.5. Differentiation and identification of acarines 14.11. Advantages of Molecular Techniques 14.12. Conclusions References 15. Biointensive Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Agriculture - P S Shera and Ramesh Arora 15.1. Introduction 15.2. Strategies in Biointensive IPM 15.2.1. Physical, cultural and mechanical control 15.2.2. Host plant resistance 15.2.3. Biological control agents 15.2.4. Biorationals 15.2.5. Biotechnological approaches 15.3. Area Wide – IPM 15.4. Conclusions References