Water is an essential input for agriculture. Most of the activity growing plants may contain almost 90 percent of water. Less than one percent of the total water used by the plant is needed for its metabolic activities. The present book consists of 18 chapters. The chapter I-III deal with soil, fertilizers, and irrigation. Chapter V-VII have been dedicated to dry farming and economics, pastures, natural and artificial, notes on forests, cattle, pigs and carobs runs and farms for sheep and ostriches has been covered in chapter VIII. Chapter IX-XIII deal with basic understanding of cultivation, climate, soil, varieties etc. of cereals, apples, asparagus, onions and potatoes, citrus, orchards, grapes, walnuts and pistachio nuts. Chapter XIV-XVII describes the some special industries, tropical fruits, tropical plantations, plant and sowing for oil. Chapter XVIII enumerates the tropical agriculture with special reference to tobacco, cotton, sugar cane and sisal. This book will serve as valuable text cum reference book to the students and researchers of agronomy, soil science, crop production, agriculture engineering, water resources engineering, environmental sciences and horticulture.