This book comprises 31 chapters on advances in soil-plant systems for improving nutrient use efficiency with four major themes viz. 1. Introduction and Fundamentals of Soil Plant Atmosphere Continuum and nutrient use efficiency 2. Soil physical, chemical, biological and agronomic management for improving NUE 3. Plant physiological, genetic & molecular biological basis for improving nutrient uptake & use efficiency 4. Climate change aspects related to soil and plant systems for improving NUE. Besides the book also include few chapters on analytical techniques and instrumentation for the study of nutrient use efficiency with respect to physico-chemical and biological parameters.