The present work is a comprehensive study of all aspects of ancient and medieval hydraulic technology as well as social management of water resources. Starting with the earthen bund at Inamgaon (Maharashtra) claimed by the excavators to belong to Circa 1500 B.C., the work reviews archaeological remains all over the subcontinent coming down to the eighteenth century. These represent remains of facilities for storage and distribution of water for agriculture as well as urban consumption. Epigraphic records support and supplement this data. Literature of the ancient period such as Arthashastra, Manusmriti and Shilpa texts that lay down rules and regulations for storage and equitable distribution of water as also the responsibility of the state in the matter has been reviewed. Structures and devices used for raising and distribution of water have been taken note of and information from coins and paintings utilized to the full. Preface 1. Introduction 2. Chronology and cultures 3. Sources 4. Shilpa Shastras 5. Social attitudes 6. State and water supply 7. Dams 8. Ghats : Flights of steps 9. Mechanical devices 10. Wells, step-wells, kunds and tanks 11. Urban water supply 12. Concluding observations.