In 1336 an event occurred in India which almost instantaneously changed the political condition of entire south India. It was the foundation of the city and kingdom of Vijayanagar. Prior to 1336, all of southern India had lain under the domination of the ancient Hindu kingdoms like the Cholas, the Pandyans, etc. When Vijayanagar sprung into existence the monarchs of the new state became lords or overlords of the territories lying between the Deccan and Ceylon. It was also because in their attempt to stave off the persistent efforts made by the Muslims in the thirteenth century to conquer all of India, the decaying old states crumbled under the pressure and the fighting kings of Vijayanagar became the saviour of the south for two and a half centuries. Yet what remains of this magnificent kingdom today are some scattered ruins of temples, palaces and walls near the village of Hampi. This history of the erstwhile Vijayanagar kingdom, first published in 1900, was put together by the author from the scattered remarks of European medieval historians, chronicles of a few Mohammedan writers of the period and partly from Hindu inscriptions and chronicles of two Portuguese travellers Paes and Nuniz (translated and included at the end).